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Eventually...that means at my demise...this page will contain the totality of my publications, technical and otherwise, produced over a very long career and life (hopefully), and I have placed numerous bookmarks to aid in its navigation.  The first entry in the table will be periodically updated to anticipate and reflect visitor (and my own!) current interests.  Note the "fine print" observations and comments attached to each publication.  I hope you find the content useful and perhaps even enjoyable and, at times, extremely provocative! - PMG

In the meantime, you can find my complete Publication database by browsing
(updated: 6 February 2017)

Top 10 of All Time!
Science & Technology (Peer Reviewed)
Patent Publications
Technical Reports
Popular Science
Book Reviews
Opinion & Commentary


Top 10 of All Time!

Optical Properties of Thin Germanium Films in the Wavelength Range 2000-6000 Angstroms

Automation of a Wide-range, General-purpose Spectrophotometric System
Do-It-Yourself Superconductors
Orthogonalized-Plane-Wave Band Structure of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x
Properties of Metal/Polyacetylene Schottky Barriers
Broken-Symmetry Band Structure of Ditetraethyltetraselenafulvalene-X [(TMTSF)2X]
Superconductivity Above 90 K in the Compound YBa2Cu3Ox: Structural, Transport, and Magnetic Properties
Evidence for Superconductivity in La2CuO4
Role of Oxygen in PrBa2Cu3O7-y: Effect on Structural and Physical Properties
High-Temperature Superconductivity: Four Years Since Bednorz and Müller

Back to Top Ten
Back to Publications


Clarkson:  A Study of the Electronic Processes in Extrinsic Germanium as Exhibited by the Hall and     Magnetoresistance Effects (1960)
Harvard:  The Optical Properties of Thin Germanium Films (1965)


Scientific & Technical (Peer Reviewed)



IBM (1966 - 1993) (under construction)

"Optical Properties of Thin Germanium Films in the Wavelength Range 2000-6000 Angstroms," P. M. Grant and W. Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3110 (1966).  [Partial Publication of the PhD Thesis of Paul M. Grant. One of the first uses of in-situ RHEED to study thin film growth.] Back to Top Ten

"Anomalous Photovoltaic Effect In Orthorhombic Sulfur," W. Ruppel and P. M. Grant, Solid State Commun.  4, 649 (1966).  [Amazingly hundreds of volts can be generated by shining visible light on crystals of orthorhombic sulfur.  These voltages appear to arise from p-n junctions in series derived from internal strain.  The internal impedance, however, is thousands of megohms, thus not very suitable for application.]

"Photoconductivity in Garnets," P. M. Grant and W. Ruppel, Solid State Commun. 5, 543 (1967).  [Photoconductivity due to charge transfer transitions.  Phototransport measures the single particle excitation energy rather than excitonic and thus is more useful for comparison with electronic structure calculations.]

"Nondirect Processes and Optical Properties of Metals," R. K. Nesbet and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 222 (1967).  [This paper was published in response to some of the early UPS experiments by Bill Spicer at Stanford and Dean Eastman at IBM which suggested that quasi-momentum might not be a good descriptive quantum number when the given excitation relaxes so fast that quasi-particle delocalization cannot occur.  I still believe this to be the case.]

"Reflectivity of YIG and YGG: Observation of Charge Transfer and Crystal Field Transitions," P. M. Grant, Appl. Phys. Letters 11, 166 (1967).  [As far as I know, this is the first reflectance measurements to be made on "spin-forbidden" d-d spectra in transition metal oxides and associated charge transfer excitations.]

"Automation of a Wide-range, General-purpose Spectrophotometric System," P. M. Grant, IBM J. Res. Develop. 13, 15 (1969).  [Pioneering paper on automation of a spectrometer using a time-shared central computer.  Many algorithms and techniques found their way into LabView.] Back to Top Ten

"Reflectivity and Band Structure of EuO," P. M. Grant and J. C. Suits, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 172 (1969).  [This was a study I had wanted to do when I returned from graduate school to IBM San Jose, but was resisted by the headquarters lab in Yorktown.  How I obtained the sample is another story. I stole it during a trip to Yorktown]

"Simple Light Chopper for Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy," P. M. Grant, Rev. Sci. Instr. 40, 602 (1969).  [A simple design for enabling phase sensitive detection for vacuum spectrometers.  By changing the material of the tuning fork vanes, one can selectivity reduce scattered light background in selected photon energy ranges.]

"Dependence of the E1 Reflectivity Structure in EuO on Temperature and Doping," P. M. Grant, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1771 (1971).  [This work revealed that essentially two mechanisms of ferromagnetic order were present in these rare-earth magnetic semiconductors, one "intrinsic" through RKKY interactions, and the other "extrinsic" involving "clusters" of spins which determines the Curie temperature.  I am grateful to Meryl Shafer of Yorktown for the samples and he deserved to be a co-author.  This paper pre-empted similar experiments then in progress at Yorktown, and, as a result, never got the attention it should have.]

"Interleaving Slow- and Rapid-data-rate Experiments with a Time-sharing Laboratory Automation System," P. M. Grant, IBM J. Res. Develop. 15, 293 (1971).  [This may be the first time hardware interrupts were used on a commercial computer to record rapid and irreversible data streams interleaved with pre-scheduled acquisition of data from slower and less demanding equipment.]

"Automation of Data Acquisition in Transient Photoconductive Decay Experiments," B. H. Schechtman and P. M. Grant, IBM J. Res. Develop. 15, 296 (1971).  [An example of the type of experiment addressed in the previous paper, photoconductive decay measurements related to IBM's effort to develop xerographic materials to circumvent Xerox Corporation's selenium patents.  My co-author, Barry Schechtman, later went on to become one of the most effective managers of technology programs in IBM's research and technology laboratories.]

"Automation of a Residual Gas Analyzer on a Time-shared Computer," D. L. Raimondi, H. F. Winters, P. M. Grant and D. C. Clarke, IBM J. Res. Develop. 15, 307 (1971).  [Another example of data acquisition from a rapidly time-varying series, in this case, an RGA.  The was the first example of a residual gas analyzer (a small mass spectrometer) connected to a computer.]

"Automation of a Residual Gas Analyzer on a Time Shared Computer." H. F. Winters, D. L. Raimondi, P. M. Grant and D. C. Clarke, J. Vac. Sci. and Technol. 9, 495 (1972).  [Abstract Only.  For some strange reason, the referenced article published in JVST contains only the abstract!   In any event, the IBM JRD paper above contains all the details.]

"Computers Team Up," P. M. Grant, T. R. Lusebrink and D. G. Taupin, Industrial Research, November 1972, p. 50.  [A summary of the IBM San Jose Research Lab experiments running an in-house operating system called LABS/7, which became the core of a PC version and then LabView.  It was written by Gerd Hochweller, a post-doc from DESY and one of the most gifted coders I ever knew.  He was also a great soccer player who we "illegally" put on the Research Division using Harold Winter's IBM employee number.]

"Temperature Dependence of the Near-Infrared Optical Properties of Tetrathio-fulvalinium Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF) (TCNQ)," P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene, G. C. Wrighton and G. Castro, Phys. Rev. Letters 31, 1311 (1973).  [The founding publication by Rick Greene and me that started the world renowned IBM San Jose Research Laboratory effort on organic conductors that finally got the respect of the local management, and, more importantly, Yorktown, and won us the attention of K. Alex Mueller which was to be of major consequence 13 years later.]

"Optical Reflectivity of TTF-TCNQ," P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene and G. Castro, Solid State Commun. 14, 100 (1974).  [Abstract Only. This was actually a presentation I had given at a conference in Gatlinburg, TN, 9/10-12/1973.  Essentially an encapulation of our PRL paper above.]

"Low-Temperature Specific Heat of Polysulfur Nitride, (SN)x," R. L. Greene, P. M. Grant and G. B. Street, Phys. Rev. Letters 34, 89 (1975).  [The seminal paper that led to the discovery of superconductivity in (SN)x.  This experiment arose from an RPI satellite conference that featured a talk by Jerry Perlstein revealed a "sort of" metallic resistivity temperature dependence, but with a low temperature upturn.  I convinced Bryan Street to make us a sample that Rick and I could unambiguously determine a low temperature metallic state by detecting a linear temperature dependence.]

"The Preparation and Characterization of Crystals of the Superconducting Polymer, (SN)x," G. B. Street, H. Arnal, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant and R. L. Greene, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 877 (1975).      [(SN)x was first fabricated in 1910 by a chemist named Burt who also suspected it was a metal.  It wasn't until the interest in polymeric conductors arose fostered by TTF-TCNQ and the search for superconductivity brought it back into focus again.  Thanks to the talents of Bryan Street, (SN)x crystals sufficiently pure were made which resulted in the discovery of superconductivity at 300 degrees...millikelvin degrees!]

"Optical Properties of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x," P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene and G. B. Street, Phys. Rev. Letters 35, 1743 (1975).  [First of three papers on polysulfur nitride in PRL in one month!  The "Penn Group" had made an egregious error in the numerical Drude analysis.]

"Orthogonalized-Plane-Wave Band Structure of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x," W. E. Rudge and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. Letters 35, 1799 (1975).  [A great paper that corrected an error published in PRL by Marvin Cohen and Michael Schluter on their pseudopotential band structure where they had inadvertently entered a cell lattice constant as a negative number!]

"X-Ray-Photoelectron-Spectroscopy Determination of the Valence Band Structure of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x," P. Mengel, P. M. Grant, W. E. Rudge, B. H. Schechtman and D. W. Rice, Phys. Rev. Letters 35, 1803 (1975).  [Experimental determination of the above band structure.]

"Comparison of the Physical Properties of Polysulfur Nitride, (SN)x, to Related Organic Polymer Systems and (TTF)(TCNQ)," P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene, W. D. Gill, W. E. Rudge and G. B. Street, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 32, 171 (1976).  [Paper behind a talk I gave in Bordeaux in the summer of 1975 (partly in French!), a two month trip through Europe which will be featured in my memoirs.  A memorable meeting occurred with Michelle Boudeulle, a lovely French scientist who painstaking electron diffraction studies undertaken in her PhD thesis first revealed the unit cell symmetry and constants of (SN)x.  Without her contributions, never fully appreciated, the physics of polysulfur nitride would have taken much longer to solve.]

"Properties of Polysulfurnitride:  The First Superconducting Polymer," B. H. Schechtman, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene, P. Mengel, W. E. Rudge and G. B. Street, International Symposium on Electrets and Dielectrics, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, 1976, p. 405.  [A great review paper by Barry Schechtman...actually it was an excuse for Barry to go to Brasil!  Unfortunately, shortly thereafter we lost his leadership when he went off on corporate staff to IBM HQ at Armonk.]

"Specific Heat of Polysulfur Nitride, (SN)x," J. M. E. Harper, R. L. Greene, P. M. Grant and G. B. Street, Phys. Rev. B15, 539 (1977).  [Part of the Stanford PhD thesis of Jim Harper, who went on to fame at IBM Yorktown where he participated in the discovery of ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) with Jerry Cuomo (no relation).  Jim's work showed the anisotropy of the lattice specific heat of (SN)x, in retrospect first demonstrated in MgB2 in 1954, which contained an indication of superconductivity as well.  In 1954!]

"Structure and Electronic Properties of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x, Modified by Bromine," W. D. Gill, W. Bludau, R. H. Geiss, P. M. Grant, R. L. Greene, J. J. Mayerle and G. B. Street, Phys. Rev. Letters 38, 1305 (1977).  [A great surprise...due to the ingenuity of Bill Gill and Bryan Street, and the hard work of my postdoc, Wolfgang Bludau, barely two weeks off the plane from MRI-Stuttgart.  A 300 mK superconductor suddenly tripled to 900, all explained by an increase in the D-O-S because of doping.]

"Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Polysulfur Nitride, (SN)x," P. M. Grant, W. E. Rudge and I. B. Ortenburger, Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 65, Organic Conductors and Semiconductors, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), p. 575.  [This was the paper that revealed why polysulfur nitride survived the low-dimensional instabilities, such as Peierls-Frohlich which resulted in insulating behavior, preserving the metallic state to low enough temperatures for superconductivity to provide the symmetry breaking of the Fermi surface.  Interestingly, the Fermi surface of the 40 K superconductor, magnesium diboride, MbB2, is qualitative similar to that of (SN)x, and the reason for the lower Tc of the latter is still an open question (one should note that (SN)x does exhibit a weak Kohn anomaly in neutron might have thought this might have enhanced the electron-phonon pairing strength...apparently not). The Fermi surfaces in this paper were calculated and plotted by Will Rudge, and as far as I know, this is the only publication where they can be found.  Irene Ortenburger (nee, Beardsley), to become famous as the first woman alpinist to reach the summit of Annapurna derived the plasma and dielectric tenors from the band structure dispersion calculations of Rudge.]

"X-Ray and Ultraviolet Photoemission of Polymeric Sulfur Nitride, (SN)x," P. Mengel, I. B. Ortenburger, W. E. Rudge and P. M. Grant, Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 65, Organic Conductors and Semiconductors, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), p. 591.  [This paper and the previous one were based on presentations given at the 1976 Conference on Organic Conductors and Semiconductors at Siofok, a resort city on Lake Balaton in Hungary.  These were times when the Cold War was still in full swing and the Siofok meeting was the first time many of us from the West met our counterparts in the Soviet Union...but that is another story.  The photoemission work was done by my post-doc, Peter Mengel from Karlsruhe, one of the most delightful and gentle Germans I ever met.  His main drawback was that he smoked incredibly obnoxious smelling cigars.]

"Vibronic Structure in the "Metallic" Reflection Band of the (TCNQ)0 Crystal," M. R. Philpott, P. M. Grant, K. Syassen and J-M. Turlet, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4229 (1977).  [This was Mike Philpott pointing out to me how one could confuse the optical properties of a strong singlet exciton with the plasma edge of a so-called "metal."  This issue became really important later on for high-Tc compounds.  Thanks, Mike. As I recall, Klaus Syassen joined the staff of MPI Stuttgart, and Jean-Marie Turlet to the faculty of CNRS-Bordeaux. The IBM World Trade Post-Doc program was one of the most enlightened initiatives ever undertaken by corporate America.]

"Pressure Dependence of the Drude Optical Edge of Tetrathiofulvalinium (TTF) and Tetraselenafulvalinium (TSeF) Tetracyanoquinodimethanide (TCNQ)," B. Welber, P. E. Seiden and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B18, 2692 (1978).  [The late Phil Seiden, a former TV "Whiz Kid," was one of the great leaders and supporters of basic science in the IBM Research Division and became a good and close friend.  Phil was the first in the Yorktown headquarters lab to appreciate our organic superconductivity group in San Jose.  I miss him.  Our collaboration on this research convinced Phil to leave IBM management and get back to "real" research.  I will have lots more to say about Phil on these pages in the future.]

"Band Structure of Polyacetylene, (CH)x," P. M. Grant and I. P. Batra, Solid State Commun. 29, 225 (1979).  [The definitive one-electron band structure of polyacetylene.  An important number turned out to be the interchain transfer integral which was used by others to scale the degree of "soliton confinement" essential to the intrachain transport and magnetic properties.  Although I'm first author, the idea for the paper and most of the detail work was done by my friend and colleage, Inder Batra.  I believe he developed the code for the program while on sabbatical in Yorktown. This paper turned out to be one of the most cited papers published by each of us.]

"The Role of AsF5 in Modifying the Electrical Properties of Polyacetylene, (CH)x," T. C. Clarke, R. H. Geiss, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, J. W. Macklin, H. Morawitz, J. F. Rabolt, D. Sayers and G. B. Street, J. C. S. Chem. Comm., 1979, p. 332.  [The point of this work was to see if AsF5 interacts with the polyacetylene does.  A somewhat amusing incident occurred when I was driving my truck up to Stanford with the glassware in the back and on getting to SSRL we could find now evidence of arsenic pentaflouride in the x-ray spectra.  I was worried it had leaked out on Rte. 101 and poisoned hundreds of motorists!  Turned out it had leaked out through a stopcock valve in Tom Clarke's lab.]

"On the Electron-Electron Interaction as the Source of the Metallic Resistivity in TTF-TCNQ," P. E. Seiden and P. M. Grant, Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 95, Quasi One-Dimensional Conductors I, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 130.  [Based on Phil's talk at the Dubrovnik conference in 1978, another wonderful gathering following on Siofok.  I never really bought into the electron-electron model fully, but Seiden was tough to argue against.  What a character.  He told during this Dubrovnik trip that as a kid he liked to stick his head out his bedroom window into the rain.  So did I.]

"Properties of Brominated (SN)x," W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, R. H. Geiss, R. L. Greene, J. F. Kwak and R. L. Greene, Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 95, Quasi One-Dimensional Conductors II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 385.  [Bill Gill's talk at Dubrovnik on our brominated (SN)x work.  The observed behavior suggest a shift in the size of the electron-hole pockets due to intercalation of Br3- and subsequent modification of the interband scattering lifetimes.]

"X-Ray Absorption in Polymeric Conductors," H. Morawitz, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, G. B. Street and D. Sayers, Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 95, Quasi One-Dimensional Conductors II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 390.  [This is Hans Morawitz' Dubrovnik talk (Hans was our soccer coach and captain at SJRL) on the XANES and EXAFS spectra of brominated (SN)x and AsF5-doped (CH)x, showing that both bromine and arsenic pentaflouride intercalate between the respective polymer chains.]

"Properties of Doped Polyacetylene, (CH)x," R. L. Greene, T. C. Clarke, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, J. F. Kwak and G. B. Street, Molecular Metals, ed. by W. E. Hatfield (Plenum, 1979), p. 203.  [This paper is derived from an APS presentation given by Rick Greene reviewing the activities of "the group."]

"Phototransport Effects in Polyacetylene, (CH)x," T. Tani, P. M. Grant, W. D. Gill, G. B. Street and T. C. Clarke, Solid State Commun. 33, 499 (1980).  [Bill Gill's IBM WTC postdoc, Toshiro Tani, performed the bulk of the experimental effort reported herein using photometric equipment in my lab.  At the end of the paper, a crude estimate was made of potential solar cell efficiency of our samples (made by Bryan and Tom), obtaining 0.002% (silicon is around 8%)!  Nonetheless, this was of the earliest papers to consider possible device promises of polymeric conductors.]

"The Mechanism of Arsenic Pentafluoride Doping of Polyacetylene," T. C. Clarke, R. H. Geiss, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, H. Morawitz, G. B. Street and D. E. Sayers, Synth. Met. 1, 21 (1980).  [Most, if not all, of the polyacetylene samples in this period were made by Tom Clarke.  This is another seminal paper in Volume 1, Number 1, of Synthetic Metals, and probably the most definitive study of the chemistry of AsF5 in (CH)x up to that time...or since.]

"Electronic Structure of Conducting π-Electron Systems," P. M. Grant and I. P. Batra, Synth. Met. 1, 193 (1980).  [The most complete and widely quoted paper on the band structure of conducting polymers.  Period.  Full Stop (thank you, David Campbell).]

"X-Ray Absorption in Polymers," H. Morawitz, P. Bagus, T. Clarke, W. Gill, P. M. Grant and G. B. Street, Synth. Met. 1, 267 (1980).  [This paper by Hans Morawitz falls into the category of a review of all the IBM SJRD effort on core level spectroscopy on conducting polymers.  Probably this is the definitive paper on this subject then and perhaps now.]

"Photoconductivity and Junction Properties of Polyacetylene Films," T. Tani, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, T. C. Clarke and G. B. Street, Synth. Met. 1, 301 (1980).  [The main purpose of this paper was to pin down the single particle band gap of (CH)x and compare with band structure calculations.  In a way, it was a "prequel" to an upcoming paper on JFET and MOSFET devices presented at the 1980 conducting organics meeting in Helsingor, Denmark...but that's another story!]

"Polypyrrole: An Electrochemically Synthesized Conducting Organic Polymer," K. K. Kanazawa, A. F. Diaz, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant, G. B. Street, G. P. Gardini and J. F. Kwak, Synth. Met. 1, 329 (1980).  [Bryan Street and Art Diaz came up with the idea of looking at polypyrrole as a precursor conducting polymer.  The "doping" was performed by oxidation during growth.  The resulting samples were metallic (as nailed by thermopower measurments) and very stabile under ambient storage compared to polyacetylene.]

"ac Conductivity of Semiconducting trans-Polyacetylene," P. M. Grant and M. Krounbi, Solid State Commun. 36, 291 (1980).  [This is the first paper to reveal the presence of a depletion/accumulation layer in Schottky barriers of blocking contacts to doped polyacetylene raising the possibility of creating JFET type devices.]

"Properties of Metal/Polyacetylene Schottky Barriers," P. M. Grant, T. Tani, W. D. Gill, M. Krounbi and T. C. Clarke, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 869 (1981).  [The first attempt to fabricate thin film field effect transistors employing organic polymer semiconductors.  Our gates were too "leaky" and we saw "transistor action," but no gain.  Such devices were subsequently successfully made by Richard Friend and his collaborators at the Cavendish, and later became notorious because of the miss-conduct by Schoen and colleagues at Bell Labs.  Mohammed Krounbi, a Lebanese American, later went on to pioneer manufacturing of magnetorestive read heads for inductive magnetic recording and became a VP of one of the hard disk companies in Silicon Valley.]

"Band-structure Parameters of a series of tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene [(TMTSF)2X] Compounds," P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B26, 6888 (1982).  [The beginning of another one of my "theoretical phases."  We were able to show the Fermi Surface of those Bechgaard Salts that were superconductors had closed 2D topologies and thus "immune" to other instabilities such as spin and charge density waves.]

"Mulliken-Wolfsberg-Helmholtz Band Structure of di-tetramethyltetraselenafulva-lene-X [(TMTSF)2X]:  Role of the Basis Set," P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B27, 3934 (1983) (Rapid Communications).  [This paper revealed the magnitude of the transport properties perpendicular and parallel to the chain direction and their relative influence on the physical properties of organic superconductors.]

"Broken-Symmetry Band Structure of Ditetraethyltetraselenafulvalene-X [(TMTSF)2X]," P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. Letters 50, 1005 (1983).  [The Bechgaard salts were a veritable solid state physics laboratory, displaying just about every phenomena known.  This paper using simple tight-binding models, and symmetry, revealed all this very clearly.]

"Self-Consistent Crystal Potential and Band Structure of Three-Dimensional Trans-Polyacetylene," P. M. Grant and I. P. Batra, J. Physique 44, C3-437 (1983).  [Paper from the Les Arcs follow on to Dubrovnik.  The last paper Inder and I collaborated on and the definitive 3-D band structure of trans-polyacetylene, including the best value for the perpendicular transfer integral pinning down the soliton confinement energy.  Oh...this was also the conference where Denis Jerome almost perished trying to ski down a certain Yank.]

"Electronic Structure of the 2:1 Charge Transfer Salts of TMTCF," P. M. Grant, J. Physique 44, C3-847 (1983).  [From the abstract:  We present a unified single particle model capable of explaining a number of experimental facts pertaining to the high and low temperature/pressure regimes of (TMTCF)2X.  Special attention is paid to the nature and source of the interchain interaction in determining the overall physical properties of these materials.  WOW!]

"The c-Axis Interaction in (TMTSF)2," P. M. Grant, J. Physique 44, C3-1121 (1983).  [Proof that the interchain interaction protects the Bechgaard Salts from a P-F instability.  BTW, the late, great Vic Emory had the talk before me at Les Arcs...Vic complained that his BNL management accused him of "not being a real theoretician" because he didn't concentrate on band structure.  When I stood up, I claimed being a real theoretician because I indeed did band structure computations...this brought the house down!]

"Band Structure of Superconducting Charge Transfer Salts," P. M. Grant, Mat. Sci. (Poland) 10, 95 (1984) [At present, only the abstract of this paper is available.  Apparently, the text of the paper was never published in the subject journal.  These years were "politically complex" in Poland. I hope to be able to find the manuscript in my IBM stored records.  I believe it was the prelude to my 1983 PRL publication above. **]

"X-ray Absorption Near-Edge-Structure Studies in Hexamethylenetetraselenafulvalene (HMTSF) and HMTSF-tetracynoquinodimethane (HMTSF-TCNQ) and -tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (HMTSF-TFTCNQ)," P. M. Grant, W. D. Gill, H. Morawitz, K. Bechgaard and D. E. Sayers, Phys. Rev. B30, 6973 (1984). [This paper got me into a lot of trouble with John Hubbard, who held due to the short time span of the XANES excitation, the final state was localized, and not itinerant.  I think the true state is somewhere inbetween.]

"Monte Carlo Studies of the Quantum XY Model in Two Dimensions," E. Loh, Jr., D. J. Scalapino and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B31, 4712 (1985).  [My transition from a single-particle theoretician to many-body (what Phil Seiden described as Grant becoming a "real" theoretician) projects.  Down in collaboration with Eugene Loh, one of the great natural coders of all times, and the venerable Doug Scalapino.  This was a vital "career redirection" for me.]

"Monte Carlo Simulations of the Quantum XXZ Model in Two Dimensions," E. Loh, Jr., D. J. Scalapino and P. M. Grant, Physica Scripta 32 327 (1985).  [Essentially the paper representing Eugene Loh's thesis.  "XXZ" is a better description than "XY," but the term is not as well known.]

"Reply to "Comment on 'Monte Carlo Simulations of the Quantum XXZ Model in Two Dimensions," E. Loh, Jr., D. J. Scalapino and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B33, 5104 (1986)  [This note was in response to criticism that we were not observing a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition the the spin-1/2 XXZ model, analogous to the classical spin model.  The criticism was put it mildly!]

"Random Exchange Effects in Antiferromagnetic Quantum Spin Chains: A Monte Carlo Study, " H.-B. Schuttler, D. J. Scalapino and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B35, 3461 (1987).  [Bernd Schuttler was a postdoc of both Doug Scalapino and myself, and this paper was an attempt to see if there could be long range order in disordered Heisenberg chain.  There isn't.]

"Superconductivity Above 90 K in the Compound YBa2Cu3Ox: Structural, Transport, and Magnetic Properties," P. M. Grant, R. B. Beyers, E. M. Engler, G. Lim, S. S. P. Parkin, M. L. Ramirez, V. Y. Lee, A. Nazzal, J. E. Vazquez and R. J. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B35, 7242 (1987).  [First Report of the "1-2-3" Crystal Structure and Material Processing Conditions.  More story to follow. Until then, go here.]

"Superconductivity Above Liquid Nitrogen Temperature: Preparation and Properties of a Family of Perovskite-Based Superconductors," E. M. Engler, V. Y. Lee, A. I. Nazzal, R. B. Beyers, G. Lim, P. M. Grant, S. S. P. Parkin, M. L. Ramirez, J. E. Vazquez and R. J. Savoy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 2848 (1987).  [The best paper hands down, written by Ed Engler, that came out of the 1987 APS Meeting of March, 1987, the "Woodstock of Physics."  This is the first report, which I was honored to give at "Woodstock," on the structure, processing and properties, of the rare earth substitutions for yttrium.  There are two retrospective "blunders" in this paper.  One was the attribution for the lack of superconductivity in Pr-1-2-3 to the absence of the orthorhombic phase, which was due to low oxygen concentration, later the subject of a more comprehensive paper.  The other was reporting superconductivity in the Ba-Ca-Sr fractional substitution which turned out to be a blown labeling of samples!  What the hell...we were in battle!]

"Evidence for Superconductivity in La2CuO4," P. M. Grant, S. S. P. Parkin, V. Y. Lee, E. M. Engler, M. L. Ramirez, J. E. Vazquez, G. Lim, R. D. Jacowitz and R. L. Greene, Phys. Rev. Letters 58, 2482 (1987).  [This was a remarkable discovery.  In January, 1987, Rick Greene and I observed zero thermopower at 41 K, a clear signature of superconductivity, in an "undoped" sample of La2CuO4 given us by Georg Bednorz, one which was completely insulating!  Read the paper to find out what happened.  High-Temperature superconductivity could have been discovered in 1954!]

"High Temperature Superconductivity Research at the IBM Thomas J. Watson and Almaden Research Centers," A. P. Malozemoff and P. M. Grant, Z. Phys. B67, 275 (1987).  [Alex wrote most of this.]

"Processing, Structure, and High-Temperature Superconductivity,'' E. M. Engler, R. B. Beyers, V. Y. Lee, A. I. Nazzal, G. Lim, S. S. P. Parkin, P. M. Grant, J. E. Vazquez, M. L. Ramirez and R. D. Jacowitz, Proceedings of the Beijing International Workshop on High Temperature Superconductivity, ed. by Z. Z. Gan, G. J. Cui, G. Z. Yang and Q. S. Yang, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1987), p. 23.  [Engler's talk in China.]

"Do-It-Yourself Superconductors," P. M. Grant, New Scientist 115, 36 (1987).  [Although not exactly "peer reviewed," this article did undergo extensive scrutiny by the editors of New Scientist.  The story is about my daughter Heidi's 8th grade science demonstration and the verification of superconductivity at 91 K in YBCO by a chemistry class at Gilroy High School in California, three months after its discovery and four months before the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Bednorz and Mueller.  I was told it was distributed by UNESCO to some 15,000 third world high schools, as well as to all members of the US Congress.  This was the first "education" paper on high-Tc and subsequent "levitation kits" made available to the general public.  It may be, now in 2015, the only "money making" application of HTSC we have!]  Back to Top Ten

"Broad Search for Higher Critical Temperature in Copper Oxides: Effects of Higher Reaction Temperatures," J. B. Torrance, E. M. Engler, V. Y. Lee, A. I. Nazzal, Y. Tokura, M. L. Ramirez, J. E. Vazquez, R. D. Jacowitz and P. M. Grant, Chemistry of High-Temperature Superconductors, ed. by D. L. Nelson, M. S. Whittingham and T. F. George (American Chemical Society, Washington, 1987), p. 85.  [This work was motivated by the large number of "unidentified superconducting objects" that appeared in the spring and summer of 1987.  I'll set up some links to related presentations and videos later (2015).]  **

"Processing, Structure, and High-Temperature Superconductivity," E. M. Engler, R. B. Beyers, V. Y. Lee, A. I. Nazzal, G. Lim, S. S. P. Parkin, P. M. Grant, J. E. Vazquez, M. L. Ramirez and R. D. Jacowitz, Chemistry of High-Temperature Superconductors, ed. by D. L. Nelson, M. S. Whittingham and T. F. George (American Chemical Society, Washington, 1987), p. 266.  [Engler's ASC contribution to the application of "sound chemistry" in searching for new HTSC compounds and avoiding "USOs".]

"The Effects of Oxygen Stoichiometry and Oxygen Ordering on Superconductivity in Y1Ba2Cu3O9-x," R. Beyers, E. M. Engler, P. M. Grant, S. S. P. Parkin, G. Lim, M. L. Ramirez, K. P. Roche, J. E. Vazquez, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Jacowitz, B. T. Ahn, T. M. Gur and R. A. Huggins, Proceedings of the IX Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (Vista Hermosa, México): High Temperature Superconductors, ed. by J. Heiras, R. A. Barrio, T. Akachi and J. Tagüeña (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 38.  [A careful study of "underdoped" coulombic titration prepared YBCO samples clearly showing "granular" behavior as a function of anneal time, even in a "rarified" oxygen environment.]

"Magnetic Field Dependence of the Resistivity and Susceptibility of the Above-100 K Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu Superconductor," S. S. P. Parkin, E. M. Engler, V. Y. Lee, A. I. Nazzal, Y. Tokura, J. B. Torrance and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev B38, 7101 (1988).  [A spring 1988 work that required several iterations with PRB editors before publication.  Does contain evidence of possibly "higher Tc" in the BSSCO system.]

"The Effects of Oxygen Stoichiometry and Oxygen Ordering on Superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O9-x," R. Beyers, E. M. Engler, P. M. Grant, S. S. P. Parkin, G. Lim, M. L. Ramirez, K. P. Roche, J. E. Vazquez, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Jacowitz, B. T. Ahn, T. M. Gur and R. A. Huggins, High-Temperature Superconductors Symposium, ed. by M. B. Brodsky, R. C. Dynes, K. Kitazawa and H. L. Tuller, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburg, 1988), p. 77.   [Unclear exactly when this paper was submitted/published.  Best on record is: Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 99 - 1988 Materials Research Society,]

"Studies of Superconducting Oxides with a Solid-State Ionic Technique," B. T. Ahn, T. M. Gur, R. A. Huggins, R. Beyers, E. M. Engler, P. M. Grant, S. S. P. Parkin, G. Lim, M. L. Ramirez, K. P. Roche, J. E. Vazquez, V. Y. Lee and R. D. Jacowitz, Physica C153-155, 590 (1988).   [Essentially Ahn's doctoral thesis, concentrating on coulombic titration methods.]

"Compositional Properties and Thermoelectric Power of the Superconducting Ceramic Nd2-xCexCuO4-y," M. E. López-Morales, R. Savoy and P. M. Grant, Solid State Commun. 71, 1079 (1989).   [NB:  Date of reception, 12 June 1989.  Read Summary...the evidence supporting majority n-type carrier transport is overwhelming.]

"Recent Studies on PrBa2Cu3O7-y: Effect of Oxygen Concentration," P. M. Grant, A. Bezinge and M. E. López-Morales, The Science of Superconductivity and New Materials, ed. by S. Nakajima, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 69.   [A precursor to the PRB publication listed below.  Note last sentence in Conclusion...a work in progress.]

"Praseodymium 1-2-3: Intrinsic Structure, Oxygen Concentration Effects and Solid Solutions with Yttrium, Calcium and Zinc," M. E. López-Morales, A. Bezinge, P. M. Grant and D. Ríos-Jara, Physica C162-164, 61 (1989).  [Another precursor paper to the PRB paper below, this one focusing on the synthesis and structure of Y, Ca and Zn solid solutions within Pr-123.]

"High Temperature Superconductivity: A Perspective on the Current State of Affairs," P. M. Grant, Proceedings of the X Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (Cocoyoc, México): Progress in High Temperature Superconductivity, Vol. 20, ed. by T. Akachi, J. A. Cogordan and A. A. Valladares, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 1.  [As I write this comment in November, 2015, it is now 26 years since this paper was published.  Most of what was said about progress on both the physics and applications of the copper oxide perovskites having slowed remains mostly true today as well.]

"Role of Oxygen in PrBa2Cu3O7-y: Effect on Structural and Physical Properties," M. E. López-Morales, D. Ríos-Jara, J. Tagüeña, R. Escudero, S. La Placa, A. Bezinge, V. Y. Lee, E. M. Engler and P. M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B41, 6655 (1990).  [Most likely the definitive paper on the materials science and physics of Pr-1237 to date (2015].  Addresses, a still unanswered issue, why is Pr-1237 the only known CuO perovskite that is insulating at all temperatures and conducting/superconducting at none, irrespective of oxygen concentration?  This paper suggests that transport in Pr-1237 is dominated by variable range hopping instead of coherent band-mediated conductance.  This hypothesis could be tested via an appropriate Quantum Monte Carlo model, a great PhD thesis.]

"Preparation and Properties of Fluorine doped Nd2CuO4-y Superconductors," M. E. López-Morales and P. M. Grant, J. Solid State Chem. 85, 159 (1990).   [Note reception date, 17 August 1989.  Likely the definitive study of the synthesis and structure of the F-doped Nd214 compounds.]

"High-Temperature Superconductivity: Four Years Since Bednorz and Müller," P. M. Grant, Adv. Mat. 2, 232 (1990).  [A review of the past and prediction of the future for high temperature superconductivity.  Some of the predictions were right on and some way'll have to read the article to find out.  This paper contains beautiful 3D structures of all the known layered copper oxide perovskites at the time, computed by the graphics group at the IBM Winchester Science Center. Slightly updated 19 April 2010]

"The Preparation and Processing of Bulk Superconducting Ceramic Nd2-xCexCuO4-y," M. E. López-Morales, R. Savoy and P. M. Grant, J. Mat. Res. 5, 2401 (1990).  [See Fig. 3 that shows the ac susceptibility onset of superconductivity at 27.5 K.  ac Susceptiblity is perhaps the most sensitive indicator of superconductivity.  This finding was verified by resistivity as well in the following Conference Proceedings publication two months later.]

"Effects of Synthetic Conditions and Reduction Processing on the Physical Properties of Ceramic Nd2‑xCexCuO4-y," M. E. López-Morales, B. T. Ahn, R. B. Beyers and P. M. Grant, Proceedings of the XI Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (14-17 January 1990, Cocoyoc, Morelos, México): Progress in High Temperature Superconductivity, Vol. 26, ed. by J. A. Cogordan, E. Sansores, T. Akachi and A. A. Valladares (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 93.  [Perhaps the best study done on the "n-type" copper oxide perovskites using coulomb titration methodology.  Note Fig. 2 and the onset of superconductivity at 27.5 K, at the time, and perhaps today (11/2015) as well, the world record for these compounds.]

"Antiferromagnetic Order in PrBa2Cu3O7-x (x=6,7)," T. M. Riseman, J. H. Brewer, E. J. Ansaldo, P. M. Grant, M. E. López-Morales and B. M. Sternlieb, Hyperfine Interactions 63, 249 (1990).   [mu-SR study of Pr123 as a function of (Pr, Y) ratieos.  Conclusions...uncertain...Pr "tends" to Pr3+ as Y concentration decreases.]

"High Temperature Superconductivity: Challenges for the 1990's," P. M. Grant, Proceedings of the XI Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (14-17 January 1990, Cocoyoc, Morelos, México): Progress in High Temperature Superconductivity, Vol. 26, ed. by J. A. Cogordan, E. Sansores, T. Akachi and A. A. Valladares (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), p. 1.  [Once again, the principal conclusions of this paper, that we are still a long way from a basic understanding of high temperature superconductivity and its societal application, remains true today in 2015.  Nonetheless, I maintain the wisdom contained in the Mexican proverb, "Mas vale paso que dure que trote que canse," will eventually prevail.]

"The Importance of Being N-Type," P. M. Grant, Proceedings of the XII Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (13-16 January 1991, Vista Hermosa, Morelos, México): Progress in High Temperature Superconductivity, Vol. 31, ed. by J. L. Heiras, A. A. Valladares and E. Sansores (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 169.  [The title is a "steal" from the title of Oscar Wilde's 1895 play, "The Importance of Being Earnest."  The message is that the n-types can help us understand the fundamental physics of the copper oxide perovskites.  Google the title of Wilde's play and guess what characters represent the issues addressed!]

"Electronic Structure of the 2:1 Charge Transfer Salts of TMTCF," P. M. Grant, Selected Papers in Physics (Organic Superconductors), Vol. 12, No. 20, ed. by T. Ishiguro (in Japanese) (Physical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), p. 93 (reprinted from J. Physique 44, C3-847 (1983).  [A Japanese version of perhaps my most referenced publication aside from those on High-Tc.  A sweet exit from my 40 year IBM career.]

"Electrical and Magnetic Properties of La4‑xPrxBaCu5O13±y," M. E. López-Morales, F. Morales, J. L. Heiras, R. Escudero and P. M. Grant, Proceedings of the XIII Winter Meeting on Low Temperature Physics (19-22 January 1992, Vista Hermosa, Morelos, México): Progress in Low Temperature Physics, Vol. XX, ed. by R. Escudero,  T. Akachi and J. L. Heiras (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. xx (in press). [Article not currently available.  It appears (as of 2015) these proceeding have not been published, therefore this entry is the sole link to a "hard copy."]

"Monte-Carlo Simulations of Fermions on Quasiperiodic Chains," P. M. Grant (in preparation).**

"Evidence for Granular Behavior in the Superconducting Properties of Non-Optimally Doped Copper Oxide Pervoskites," P. M. Grant, W. Y. Lee, A. Nazzal and M. E. López-Morales (in preparation).**

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EPRI (1993 - 2004)

"Superconductivity and Electric Power:  Promises, Promises...Past, Present and Future," P. M. Grant, IEEE Trans. Appl. Super. 7, 112 (1997).  [Based on a Plenary Lecture at the 1996 Applied Superconductivity Conference held in Pittsburg. An in your face review of where power applications have been, were at in 1997, and where they might be going.  Contains a description of the "electricity pipe" concept of Grant, Schoenung and Hassenzahl]

"Cost Projections for High Temperature Superconductors," P. M. Grant and T. P. Sheahen,, Applied Superconductivity Conference, Palm Springs, CA, 1998. [An engineering-economy based approach to estimating eventual cost/performance of both Generation 1 (OPIT/BSCCO/Ag) and Generation 2 coated conductor (textured YBCO) HTSC tape.  Unlike wires made from non-superconducting metals, e.g., copper, the cost/performance in $/kA×m of HTSC tapes is highly application specific and cannot be reduced to a single number.]
"Potential Electric Power Applications for Magnesium Diboride," P. M. Grant, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 689, 3 (2002).  [A quite controversial paper showing magnesium diboride promises to be cost competitive for power transformer application.]

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W2AGZ  (2004 - )

"The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Hydrogen and Electric Power," Paul M. Grant, Power Systems Conference and Exposition,2004,IEEE PES,PSCE04 Panel Session on Future Power Delivery Options for Long-Term Energy Sustainability, 10-13 October 2004, New York, Pages 1745 - 1749, Vol. 3, Digital Object Identifier 10.1099/PSCE.2004.1397675 (  [Original SuperCable paper concentrating on physical dimensions and losses.]
"The Energy SuperGrid," Paul M. Grant, WEC2004, Session:Power & Energy, November 2004, Shanghai, p. 109.  [Published on two CDs, not "in print."  Contact me at if you'd like copies.  Perhaps the "tightest" paper, I've written over the years on the SuperGrid Vision.  A slightly more readable preprint can be found here.  And, if you'd like it in Chinese, click here!  BTW, the first two contain a brief autobiography of my career as of 2004.  Boring...]
"The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electrical Power," Paul M. Grant, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 1810 (2005).  [The general design of a dual-purpose cable to deliver electricity via superconductivity and chemical potential power via cryogenic hydrogen or natural gas is presented.  A universal dimensionless scaling parameter for sizing each type of power is defined.]
"Cryo-Delivery Systems for the Co-Transmission of Chemical and Electrical Power," Paul M. Grant, (Adv. Cryo. Eng.), AIP Conf. Proc. 823, 291 (2006).  [Emphasis on the delivery of cryofuel in the form of liquid hydrogen or supercritical hydrogen gas at 77 K or as LNG along with wellhead generated electricity.]
"Superconducting Lines for the Transmission of Large Amounts of Electrical Power Over Great Distances: Garwin-Matisoo Revisited Forty Years Later," Paul Michael Grant, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 1641 (2007). [Invited paper at the 2006 Applied Superconductivity Conference, a reprise of the first conceptual design of a high capacity 1000 km superconducting dc cable, 100 GW, +/- 100 kV, 500 kA proposed in 1966 by IBM researchers Richard Garwin and Juri Matisoo which employed Nb3Sn cooled to 4 K.  We revisit this vision in the light of the emergence of HTSC conductors operating in the 20-80 K range and conclude the Garwin-Matisoo is both technically and financially viable.]
"Design Criteria for Warm Temperature Dielectric Superconducting dc Cables: Impact of Co-Pole Magnetic Fields," P. M. Grant, W. V. Hassenzahl, B. Gregory and S. W. Eckroad, JOP:CS 97, 012231, (2008). [EUCAS 2007 analysis of a pair of SCDC bipolar cables without shields (not coaxial). We study the effects on the design and performance of two neighboring warm temperature dielectric cables, especially degradation of critical current capacity and strong repulsive forces imposed by the mutually created magnetic fields.]
"Electronic Properties of Rocksalt Copper Monoxide: A Proxy Stucture for High Temperature Superconductivity," P. M. Grant, JOP:CS 129, 012042 (2008). [Copper oxide structures are at the heart of high temperature superconductivity, yet the mechanism of HTSC remains unresolved.  Strong spin-spin correlation is believed to play a role given that all of the heavier transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) monoxides TMOs) are antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulators.  However, the first four naturally crystallize in the cubic rocksalt structure, but CuO, whose natural structure is the highly anisotropic monoclinic mineral tenorite.  On applying modern density functional theory to hypothetical cubic rocksalt CuO, we find for all physical values of antiferromagnetic spin-spin correlation, that it is a metal, not an insulator.  Only on applying a tetragonal distortion do we obtain the expected Mott-Hubbard insulating state.  These results strongly suggest that the original motivations of Alex Mueller to explore cuprate materials based on their proclivity to Jahn-Teller distort were soundly based. Results originally presented at NanoDubna, Dubna, Russia, 2008).]
"SuperSuburb - A Future Cryo-powered Residential Community," P. M. Grant, (Proceedings of ICEC 22 - ICMC 2008, ed. by Ho-Myung Chang, et al., Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics 978-89-957138-2-2, p. 543 (2009)).  [A visionary concept based on the SuperGrid/SuperCity model to supply the complete energy requirements of a typical American residential community via hydricity, a balanced combination of nuclear generated hydrogen and electricity delivered over HTSC superconducting cables.]
"A High-Power Superconducting DC Cable," W. V. Hassenzahl, S. W. Eckroad, P. M. Grant, B. Gregory, and S. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 1756 (2009). [Conceptual design of a 1 GW (100 kV, 100 kA) superconducting DC cable, encompassing cryostat details and dissipation due to transients and ac ripple.]
"Superconductivity in Power Applications," P. M. Grant, ICEC-ICMC 2010 Conference Proceedings. [As of April, 2014, this volume has yet to be published.]

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Patent Publications

"Thin Film Magneto Resistance Device," P. M. Grant and R. V. Penney, January 9, 1962 (US Patent 3,016,507).  [This invention relates to electrical signal control devices and more particularly to a magneto resistance active device having a thin film structure.  It presages the entire chain of devices leading to the present inductive magnetorecording head read technology.]
"Thin Film Switching Circuit," P. M. Grant, May 29, 1962 (US Patent 3,037,199).  [This invention pertains to Hall effect devices and especially to an improved Hall effect circuit employing a thin film memory element. Such a memory element has the advantage of providing "static" read-out not requiring a post-write.]
"Simple Interactive Graphics Program," P. M. Grant, IBM Report RJ 734, July 1970 (SA870-0305. [This disclosure describes a PL/I-based interactive graphics package for scientists employing a high-resolution video display monitor. The example embodiment is that of examining the magnetoreflectivity of a thin film, in effect, a follow-on to my PhD thesis.]
"Fabrication of Metallic (SN)X Films," W. Beyer, W. D. Gill, P. M. Grant and P. Mengel,IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 754, July 1977
[This disclosure reveals a method for fabricating metallic polysulfurnitride films, useful samples for a wide variety of fundamental experiments, such as tunneling investigations.]
"Isostructural Organic Junctions," E. M. Engler and P. M. Grant, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin,  Vol. 20, No. 3, p. 1170, August 1977 (SA876-0320).  [This disclosure encompasses a fabrication technique to produce heterojunctions (aka Schottky barriers) between semiconducting and conducting quasi-one-dimensional organic charge transfer salts.]
"Method and Means for Hypergeometric Function Calculation
on an Array Processor
," P. M. Grant, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin Vol. 22, No. 10, p. 4699, March 1980 (SA878-0246). 
[This disclosure describes an array processor algorithm for those hypergeometric functions which can be defined by successive differentiation of a seed kernel. A typical example would be the set of associated Legendre functions.]
"Organic Materials for Ablative Recording," T. C. Clarke, P. M. Grant and H. Wieder, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin Vol. 23, No. 12, p. 5553, May 1981
[A new class of ablative recording materials for video and storage applications is described. These materials comprise semiconducting and conducting polymer films.  Had IBM pressed this disclosure, they would have had a lock on all methods of DVD media recording today.]
"Additives for Carbon-Loaded Polymers," E. M. Engler, P. M. Grant and V. Y. Lee, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin Vol. 27, No. 7A, p. 4049, December 1984 (SA883-0473).  [A soluble, organic conductor is used as an additive to carbon-loaded polymers, such as polycarbonate or polyethylene. In this way, high conductivity and good mechanical properties can be achieved over a lower range of carbon concentration.]
"Electrically Superconducting Compositions and Processes for Their Preparation," R. B. Beyers, E. M. Engler, P. M. Grant, G. S. Lim and S. S. P. Parkin, filed March 11, 1987 (SA987-005).  [This invention covers the synthesis and processing conditions to yield single phase, bulk electrical superconductors with 91 K transition temperature involving rare earth elements combined with barium, copper and oxygen. It is IBM's basic claim to the 1-2-3 family of high temperature superconductors. My specific contribution to the "teaching" of the disclosure was to emphasize "slow cooling" was necessary to satisfy the "count."  Note added, 5/25/09:  We lost this interference to AT&T in 1991, based on their successful claim that the appearance of an orthorhombic x-ray powder diffraction pattern constituted "proof" that they had achieved greater than or equal to 90% superconductivity by volume, thus satisfying the "count" of the interference.  Of course, such data would never warrant peer approval for publication in a professional peer-reviewed journal.  However, the Almaden team did win the base patent coverage internationally.  This link takes you to a zip file containing all the foreign patents that issued, including the final decision of the USPTO Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences.  This link is dedicated to the memory of Joseph P. Walsh, our patent attorney who fought for our cause to his dying day.]

"Preparation of Electron High Temperature Superconductors," P. Grant, M. López-Morales and R. Savoy, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 6, p.163, 6 November 1991 (SA889-0335).  [Discloses a two-step calcination process reacting Nd2O3 and CeO2 to yield NdCeO3.5 followed by a second calcination with Nd2O3 and CuO to yield a bulk n-type superconductor.]

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Technical Reports

"Theory of the Determination of the Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films from Photometric Measurements," IBM Research Report RJ 371, 7 January 1966.  [Unpublished portion of the PhD thesis of P. M. Grant, the simultaneous solution of three non-linear reflectance and transmission coefficients to obtain n, k and film thickness.]
"Determination of Superconducting Transition Temperatures from Resistivity Measurements," IBM Research Report RJ 6457, 28 September 1988.  [Throughout 1987 and 1988, there were many reports of "unidentified superconducting objects," all due to the flood of researchers to cash in on the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, but without real experience in four-probe resistivity, a seemingly simple experiment.  This was the work of Michael Ramirez and Jose Vazquez to document how properly perform this experiment, and how one could royally screw up.  It was one of the most requested RJ reports from the Almaden Library ever.  An originally skeptical Bertram Batlogg later told me this study needed to be done.] 
"System Study of Long Distance Low Voltage Transmission Using High Temperature Superconducting Cable," S. M. Schoenung, W. V. Hassenzahl and P. M. Grant, EPRI Report WO8065-12, March, 1997.  [This study was inspired by a talk I heard from ABB at the 1996 World Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan, which compared the cost effectiveness for well head generation at a vast natural gas reserve such the Qatar region in the Persian Gulf and transport over HVDC lines.  We studied a third alternative, that using a superconducting "e-pipe" to transport power from Qatar to a future Egyptian-Palestine-Israel-Syrian industrial complex, and concluded this alternative was attractive for distances greater than 500 miles.]
"Functional Requirements of a Hydrogen-Electric SuperGrid: Two Scenarios - SuperSuburb and SuperTie," P. M. Grant, EPRI Report 1013204, March 2006. [An elaboration of the original SuperCable vision scaled to a residential suburban community scenario modeled on San Jose, CA, and then extended to a continental-wide intergrid tie designed to balance diurnal electricity supply and demand aided by the use of the hydrogen cryogen as a storage agent.]
"A Superconducting DC Cable," W. Hassenzahl, B. Gregory, S. Eckroad, S. Nilsson, A. Daneshpooy and P. Grant, EPRI Report 1020458, December 2009. [A high temperature superconductor embodiment of the classic Garwin-Matisoo low temperature superconducting cable concept, partially inspired by the "e-pipe" and SuperGrid designs.  Of particular interest are Tables C-1 and C-2 which summarize the non-superconducting cable component costs.]

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Popular Science

"Do-It-Yourself Superconductors," P. M. Grant, New Scientist 115, 36 (1987).  [The story is about my daughter Heidi's 8th grade science demonstration and the verification of superconductivity at 91 K in YBCO by a chemistry class at Gilroy High School in California, three months after its discovery and four months before the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Bednorz and Mueller.  I was told it was distributed by UNESCO to some 15,000 third world high schools, as well as to all members of the US Congress.  This was the first "education" paper on high-Tc and subsequent "levitation kits" made available to the general public.]

"Researchers Find Extraordinarily High Temperature Superconductivity in Bio-Inspired Nanopolymer," Paul M. Grant, Physics Today, May 1998. [My whimsical SciFi essay covering the great discovery in 2028 of an embodiment of Bill Little's model of exciton mediated superconductivity. You eventually "get what you need." (see SuperTunes)]
"Will MgB2 Work," P. M. Grant, The Industrial Physicist, p.22, Oct - Nov 2001.  [The first publication outlining the Nuclear/Hydrogen/Superconductivity symbiosis]
"Energy for the City of the Future," P. M. Grant, The Industrial Physicist, p.22, Feb - Mar 2002.  [The original "SuperCity" paper]
"Nuclear Energy's Contribution to the City of the Future," P. M. Grant, Nuclear Future, Vol. 1, No. 1, p.17 (2005).  [Long Version - 10 MB]
"Nuclear Energy's Contribution to the City of the Future," P. M. Grant, Nuclear Future, Vol. 1, No. 1, p.17 (2005).  [Short Version - 1.7 MB]
"A Power Grid for the Hydrogen Economy," P. M. Grant, C. Starr and T. J. Overbye, Scientific American, July 2006, p.76.  [Explores the vision of cryogenic, superconducting conduits connected into a SuperGrid that would simultaneously deliver electrical power and hydrogen fuel.]

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Book Reviews

"Devices and Developments," P. M. Grant (Applied Superconductivity, ed.-in-chief Roger B. Poeppel, Elsevier, 1994), Nature 371, 449 (1994).  [This was my first "book" review, and I really panned it, much to the displeasure of Roger Poeppel.  Main complaints were too many journals already and use on the cover of the La-2-1-4 first 3D depiction of a high-Tc structure by the IBM Hursley graphics group...without attribution.]
"Fields of Influence," P. M. Grant (Driving Force: The Natural Magic of Magnets, J. D. Livingston, Harvard University Press, 1996), Nature 380, 679 (1996).  [Jim Livingston has given us a smashing book on the science and sociology of magnetism as evinced by disclosing just a few of the chapter headings..."Romancing the Stones," Magnus Magnes,"Thanks for the Memories," and "Source of the Force."  The message of magnetism is delivered by a most diverse and colorful cast, including the likes of James Bond, Mary Baker Eddy, Dick Tracy, and Gilbert and Sullivan.  In short, this is just the kind of book I want to write someday.]
"Superconductors Get Ready for Action," P. M. Grant (Handbook of Applied Superconductivity, ed Bernd Seeber, Institute of Physics Publishing, 1998), Physics World, January, 1999, p. 39.  {posted here under permission from} [The Handbook of Applied Superconductivity has its place, but not on my desk or in my bookcase.  Its proper home is in institutional libraries of sufficient budget and necessary technical need -- in book review jargon, the proverbial "valuable addition," as it were.  If you want to see a more favorable review, have a look at Prof. Larbalestier's on]
"London Calling," P. M. Grant (A Thread Across the Ocean, John Steele Gordon, Simon & Schuster, 2002), Nature 420, 743 (2002).  [It is quite likely that this decade will see the fulfillment of the wired and wireless global village over much of the world, each inhabitant wielding a palm-sized personal organizer with the combined power of a laptop and a mobile phone.  Our "Brave New World" began with the vision of Cyrus Field and his Anglo-American partners to lay the first trans-Atlantic telegraphic cable in the mid-19th Century, a feat accomplished only after the American Civil War following five failures.  Gordon chronicles this story with "you can't lay this book down" fascination and verve.  A must read for any aspiring scientist-entrepreneur.  BTW, "London Calling" is the name of a British cult rock group.]
"Science Exiled," P. M. Grant (Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking, ed. Michael Gough, Hoover Institution, 2003), Nature 425, 663 (2003).  [A superlative collection of 12 stories by individuals laboring to assure sound science is applied to the creation of public policy, often at the cost of their careers.  The miss-direction of science range all the way from the near-miss federal initiative to create a Cold Fusion institute to the deaths of millions of Africans from malaria due to restrictions on the use of DDT.  The reader will be left with the message that we need the likes of a Richard Feynman on Capitol Hill...or even in the White House!]
"The Moses of Silicon Valley," P. M. Grant (Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age, Joel N. Shurkin, Macmillan Science, 2006), Nature 442, 631 (2006).  [Bill Shockley was an enigma.  He was a genius, broken or otherwise, but periled falling on a broken sword, its point a defective notion that race defines collective intelligence.  Read my wrapup of this review: three names...Woods, Pavrotti and Young.  Proof that a PhD in physics, nor a Nobel Prize, constitute an inoculation against silliness.]
"Plugged Into the Matrix," P. M. Grant (The Grid: A Journey Through the Heart of Our Electrified World, Philip F. Schewe, Joseph Henry Press, 2007), Nature 447, 145 (2007).  [A riveting history of the development of electricity in the United States.  Bottom Line:  Tesla won over least up to now. Read this book, if only to learn the impact Samuel Insull and David Lilienthal had on our lives.  These were the days when downtown Chicago and the valleys of Tennessee were the Silicon Valley of our forbearers.]
"Grandfather of Us All," P. M. Grant (On Superconductivity and Superfluidity: A Scientific Autobiography, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, Springer, 2008), Nature Physics 5, 243 (2009).  [Now in his early 90's, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg well deserves the accolade, "world's greatest living physicist."  Together with Lev Landau in 1950, he published their monumental derivation of the Ginzburg-Laudau equation describing second-order phase transitions based on an order parameter, perhaps the best known being superconductivity, and likely the most frequently applied non-linear differential equation next to the Navier-Stokes relations in all physics.  Besides, being a "scientific biography," this book also offers insight into the plight of "dissenting scientists" during the Soviet period.  Ginzburg is indeed today's Russian "Man for All Seasons."] {Note added on 10 November 2009: On 8 November 2009, our "Grandfather" passed on from our Physics Family.  A summary of the life and works of this remarkable human being can be found here.]
"Keeping the Lights on After 2100," Paul Michael Grant (How We Will (Eventually) Solve the Energy Crisis and Fuel the Civilization of Tomorrow, Robert B. Laughlin, Basic Books, 2011), Physics World, July 2012, p. 36.  [One of my better reviews, IMHO.  Laughlin lays out the physics behind the myriad of energy choices to deploy in the 21st Century and beyond, and should be required reading for all future political appointments to DOE.  Having said that, a major challenge not addressed (and not mentioned in my review), is that of non-sustainable population growth that will present a much more major challenge to "keeping the lights on" than any of the underlying physics.]
"Room at the Bottom," Paul Michael Grant (Moore's Law: the Life of Gordon Moore, Silicon Valley's Quiet Revolutionary, Arnold Thackray, David C. Brock, and Rachel Jones, Basic Books, 2015), Physics World, July 2015, p. 52.  [I describe Gordon Moore as the "Quiet Hero" of Silicon Valley, who brought prosperity to this southern county of San Francisco Bay as one of the founder's of Intel. "Moore's Law" is not a law of physics, but an inevitable, and immensely profitable, commercial consequence of the invention of the field effect transistor in the 1920s.  I take the view of a physicist, namely, that this commercialization was foreseen by Richard Feynman in 1959, and the "end of the road" predicted by Rolf Landauer as an inevitable "thermodynamic packing density" limit imposed on irreversible binary logic operations.]

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IBM EPRI W2AGZ Op-Eds & Letters Obituaries



"High Temperature Superconductivity Research at the IBM Thomas J. Watson and Almaden Research Centers," A. P. Malozemoff and P. M. Grant, Z. Phys. B67, 275 (1987).  [A review of the US IBM Research Division activities in high temperature superconductivity by late 1987]
"High-Temperature Superconductivity: Four Years Since Bednorz and Müller," P. M. Grant, Adv. Mat. 2, 232 (1990).  [A review of the past and prediction of the future for high temperature superconductivity.  Some of the predictions were right on and some way'll have to read the article to find out.  This paper contains beautiful 3D structures of all the known layered copper oxide perovskites at the time, computed by the graphics group at the IBM Winchester Science Center. NB: NOTE ADDED 19 APRIL 2010.]

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"OutPost on the Endless Frontier," P. M. Grant, EPRI e-Newsletter (1998-2000).  [A monthly series of informal reports and comments on developments in science and technology with potential to impact the future course of global energy development and use.  Talk about "in your face" journalism.]
"Another December Revolution," P. M. Grant, Nature 367, 16 (1994).  [Commentary on a report of a French group of superconductivity at 8 degrees Celsius. It was published in the eminent journal Science, and was praised by my friend and fellow skeptic, Bob Park.  It turned out to be complete nonsense, a textbook example of Richard Feynman's maxim, "In science it is easy to be fooled, and the easiest one to fool is yourself."  I was humbly honored by Nature to be awarded Nature's "In Praise of the Scientist as Writer" 1994 prize.  Go here.]
"Devices and Developments," P. M. Grant, Nature 371, 449 (1994).  [This was a difficult review to write, as I had to gently pan the Editor-in-chief, Roger Poeppel, one of the icons of American applied superconductivity on the staff of the Argonne National Laboratory. This early attempt at a review was ahead of its time.]
"Superconducting Superwires," P. M. Grant, Nature 375, 108 (1995).  [This N&V was the first reflection on the promise on what was to be referred to as "coated conductors," quasi-oriented films of YBCO as an alternative to the then current OPIT-BSCCO tape/wire embodiment (see article for elucidation of the acronyms. This article drew the attention...and wrath...of several of the major participants in the HTSC wire development community, notably Alex Malozemoff, CTO of American Superconductor, who subsequently submitted an LTTE of Nature. Ironically, later in 1995, Alex and I partnered to form a $10 M alliance between AMSC and EPRI which turned out to be critical to the eventually practical worldwide development of oriented YBCO wire promise today.
"Counting the Ten Year Returns," P. M. Grant, Nature 381, 559 (1996).  [The 10th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the layered copper oxide perovskites by Georg Bednorz in January, 1986.  Where are we now, and where do we go from here?  Stay tuned, and check out articles below.]
"Woodstock of Physics Revisited," P. M. Grant, Nature 386, 115 (1997).  [The discovery of superconductivity above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen caught the organizers of the annual General Meeting of the American Physical Society (the "March Meeting") by surprise.  What transpired was a hastily organized all night session subsequently dubbed the "Woodstock of Physics."  This Commentary chronicles the author's experiences, observations and predictions during this memorable event.  If you "were there," check this out.]
"Kansas Makes a Monkey of Itself," P. M. Grant, Nature 400, 810 (1999).  [An opinion piece directed at a decision by the State of Kansas Board of Education removing the requirement for high school graduates to have received exposure to the principles of evolution.]
"Currents Without Borders," P. M. Grant, Nature 407, 139 (2000).  [A principle issue in power applications of the layered copper oxide perovskites, especially YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO), is the presence of "weak links" between grains of the material believed to arise from local depletion of oxygen which restricts the level of critical current transport.  It was found that insertion of Ca partially "repaired" these weak links, but so far, as of 2009, this process has not been commercially adopted.]
"Rehearsal for Prime Time," P. M. Grant, Nature 411, 532 (2001).  [An N&V commentary on three papers appearing in this issue of Nature related to improving the critical current properties of the newly "discovered" magnesium boride (MgB2) 39 K superconductor.  Actually, in the 1950s, researchers at Syracuse University observed an anomaly in the specific heat of MgB2 at almost exactly this temperature, which, had it been properly interpreted, would have completely changed the history of applied superconductivity.]
"Up on the C60 Elevator," P. M. Grant, Nature 413, 264 (2001).  [Like many of my colleagues, the reputation of Bell Labs glazed over my usual skeptical eyes, and blinded me into acceptance of the initial results of extraordinarily high transition temperatures in expanded C60 structures announced by Hendrik Schoen and collaborators.  As revealed in the following two commentaries, I was soon cured of my myopia.]
"Is a Bell Tolling for Bell Labs?," P. M. Grant, Nature 417, 789 (2002).  [This commentary examined the evidence to date, or lack thereof, in support of the Schoen-led Bell Labs collaboration claims to have fabricated organic-based FETs.  I closed by calling on Bell Labs to issue a "grand challenge" to the science community to help reproduce...or disprove...their results.]
"Scientific Credit and Credibility," P. M. Grant, Nature Materials 1, 139 (2002).  [I was honored to be asked to author one of the commentaries in the inaugural volume of Nature Materials.  Among issues raised by the "Batlogg-Schoen Affair," and discussed in this article, were the relative responsibilities of co-authors in preventing or exposing fraud by their colleagues, and how to recognize and assure more competent reviews by selected referees.  I'm happy to say that the American Physical Society now recognizes those referees who exhibit outstanding performance.]
"Hydrogen Lifts Off - With a Heavy Load," P. M. Grant, Nature 424, 129 (2003).  [Inspired by President George Bush's 2003 State of the Union address proposing a $1.2 B R&D effort to kick off a US program on hydrogen powered vehicles, this Commentary addresses the stark realities of putting American personal transportation on "water wheels."]

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"Prospecting for an Iron Age," P. M. Grant, Nature 453, 1001 (2008).  [The discovery and development of the ferrous pnictide superconductors in 2007-08 set off a flurry of activity not seen since 2001 with MgB2, or the 80s with the cuprates.  Right now, the highest Tc measured is in the mid-50 K range and has remained there for over a year and I believe that's the limit.  The etymology of the term "pnictide" is rather obscure, apparently deriving from the Greek verb "to choke," perhaps from campfires in the Spartan army depleting the oxygen locally leaving only nitrogen to breathe. :-)]
"Extreme Energy Makeover," P. M. Grant, Physics World, October 2009, pp. 37-39. [The latest on the SuperGrid vision...maybe the best popular piece I've written.  It even got reviewed by Anjana Ahuja, science writer for The Times (of London), the weekend of 3 October 2009.  Go online to, or the PDF Version here.  But...go here to see my my favorite Peer Review!]
"Superconductivity: 100 Years and Counting," Paul Michael Grant, Cold Facts 26, December 2010, pp. 4, 6-9. [OK.  Invited article based on my 2010 Wroclaw talk.  Go here to see slides.  Much of what follows is based on this presentation.]
"Out into the Cold: Early Experiences with Superconductivity," Paul Michael Grant, Cold Facts 27 (1), Winter 2011, p 4. [Features Jim Crowe, my first mentor in IBM, and his "demo-ing" superconductivity to me when I was a mail boy in IBM's first development lab.  I thought the leads had fallen off.]
"Down the Path of Least Resistance," Paul Michael Grant, Physics World, April 2011, pp. 18-22. [Summarizing 100 years of superconductivity following its discovery by the assistants of Kamerlingh Onnes in April, 1911.  Today, superconductivity, and its higher temperature "sons and daughters," remains the most beautiful, elegant, enigmatic and profound finding of condensed matter physics in the 20th Century...along with the structure of DNA.  And largely universally unexplained and unexploited, in the broadest sense of that assertion.  Stay tuned.]
"Fantastic Five," Paul Michael Grant, Physics World, April 2011, pp. 23-25. [A retrospective by Matin Durani and me on what applications have devolved since the 1911 discovery, and what the future may hold.  My near term prediction is the discovery of axion decay and the origin of dark matter.  Far term will be the ability to entirely image and interpret the magnetic field emanating from the the human body, and the deployment of electricity transmission of massive power transmission from remotely located nuclear and renewable generation assets.]
"Upbraiding the Utilities," Paul Michael Grant, Cold Facts 27 (3), Summer 2011, pp. 4, 6. [Despite all the successes since the discovery of HTSC in 1986-87, including the development of practical wire and demonstrations of power equipment, why hasn't the US investor owned utilities adopted it?  This article issues a, so far unanswered, challenge.]
"The Great Quantum Conundrum," Paul Michael Grant, Nature 476, 37 (2011). [In this harangue, I take on my community regarding their failure, to date, to provide the community with a computationally testable model for the occurrence of high temperature temperature superconductivity in the correlated transition metal oxides-chalconginides-pnictides...or even the linear R vs T dependence in the normal state.  As David Mermin was advised as a Harvard student (me too), "..just shut up and calculate!" ]
"Superconductor Week Speaks with W2AGZ's Paul Grant," Paul Grant, Superconductor Week, 14 October 2011, pp. 4-7. [A compendium on my views/opinions through the Fall of 2011.  Very "confrontational."  E-mail comments to]
"Upbraiding the Utilities," Paul Michael Grant, Power Magazine, 1 January 2012. [A direct challenge to the US utility industry.  So far, as of March, 2012, the response has been its silence.]

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"Jake and Ernest: A Personal Memory of Michael Rice," P. M. Grant, October 31st, 2003.  [This tribute to a dear and close friend was written to be read at the 2003 Low Dimensional Metals Conference in Australia at a session honoring Michael, Sasha Ovchinnikov and Vic Emery. Be warned the story is very personal and "inside."  Few outside the conducting organics community will get it.]
"Chauncey Starr (1912-2007), Physicist, engineer and leader in the development of nuclear power," P. M. Grant, Nature 447, 789 (2007).  [When I retired from IBM to join EPRI, I was already in my late 50s.  Little did I know I was about to encounter a mentor two decades older!  Chauncey took me under his wing and taught me the realities of the electric utility industry.  He passed on in April, 2007, and I had the melancholy honor and privilege to write this and the following two obituaries.  Please take a moment to read all...each one relates different aspects of this remarkable man.]
"Chauncey Starr," P. M. Grant, Physics Today, June 2007, p79.  [Chauncey and I were both "alumni" (separated by one generation!) of the Harvard high pressure physics group founded by Percy Bridgman in the early decades of the 20th century. Read how Chauncey saved Bridgman from possible embarrassment over a measurement of the latter which seemed to violate the Wiedemann-Franz Law. Chauncey's office mate at Harvard in the mid-1930s was none other than John Bardeen.  Chauncey once told me the story of why Bardeen didn't get tenure at Harvard which I'll relate at the appropriate time and place.]
"Chauncey Starr: A Personal Memoir," P. M. Grant, Power Magazine 151, 20 (2007).  [Focus here is more on Chauncey's role in the Manhattan District Project, jumpstarting the nuclear power industry and the founding of EPRI.  It turned out one of the young engineers who worked under Chauncey on the Calutron at Oak Ridge was my cousin and godfather, Richard Whalen, later to become a regional vice-president of IBM. This piece relates the rather amusing circumstances Chauncey and Wally Zinn wherein agreed to combine efforts and midwife the birth of nuclear power.]

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